# Python Operators

An operator is used to perform some sort of operation on variables and values.

For example-

``````a = 4
b = 7
c = a + b

print(c)``````

Output

11

## Python has the following type of operators

• Arithmetic operators
• Assignment operators
• Comparison operators
• Logical Operators
• Membership Operators
• Identity Operators
• Bitwise Operators

### Arithmetic operators –

Arithmetic operators are used to performing basic arithmetic or mathematical operations. They include –

+, -, *, /, %, **, //

+ operator is used to perform addition, ‘-‘ is used to perform subtraction on two numbers, * is used for multiplication.

``````a = 6
b = 4

print(a + b)
print(a - b)
print(a * b)``````

Output

10

2

24

/ and % operators are used to perform division. The only difference between them is ‘/ ‘ returns the quotient whereas ‘%’ returns the remainder.

``````a = 8
b = 2

print(a / b)
print(a % b)``````

Output

4

0

** operator is used for calculating the exponential of a number.

For example-

``````a = 10
b = 2

print(a ** b)``````

Output

100

// operator is used to calculate floor division. That is it rounds off the result to its nearest whole number.

For example-

``````a = 5
b = 2

print(a // b)``````

Output

2

### Assignment operators

These operators are used to assign values to variables.

‘=’ is used to assign a value to a variable.

For example-

``````a = 12

print(a)``````

+= is the increment assignment operator. It adds a value to the existing value of a variable.

For example-

``````a = 4
a += 2

print(a)``````

Output

6

In the above example

a += 2

is equivalent to

a = a + 2

In the exact same way, we have ‘-=’, ‘*=’, ‘/=’, ‘%=’ and ‘**=’.

Expression Is equivalent to
a -= 2 a = a – 2
a *= 2 a = a * 2
a /= 2 a = a / 2
a %= 2 a = a % 2
a **= 2 a = a ** 2

## Comparison operators

Comparison operators are used to compare two values. Any expression having a comparison operator returns a boolean value – true or false. There are several comparison operators in python which are ==, !=, >, <, >=, and <=.

For example-

``````a = 4
b = 4

print(a == b)``````

Output

True

In the same way-

Operator Meaning Written as
!= is not equal a != b
> is greater than a > b
< is lesser than a < b
>= is greater than or equal to a >= b
<= is lesser than or equal to a <= b

### Logical Operators

The logical operators combine multiple conditional statements

and – It returns True if all the conditions are true. If any one of the conditions is False, the overall statement returns False.

For example-

``````x = 1
y = 2

print(x < 4 and y < 4)``````

Output

True

or- It returns True if any one of the conditions is true. If all the conditions are False, the overall statement returns False.

For example-

``````x = 1
y = 6

print(x < 4 or y < 4)``````

Output

True

not- It reverses the result of any conditional statement.

For example-

``````x = 10

print(not(x < 20))``````

Output

False

There are some other type of operators as well, but they can only be understood if we know the concepts of conditional statements, collections types etc.
So as of now this should be enough, after some later tutorials, the remaining operators would be discussed.